PV vs CSP sunčane elektrane
Subota, 22 Srpanj 2017 19:33

PV vs CSP sunčane elektrane

Sunčane elektrane koje osiguravaju električnu energiju nakon zalaska Sunca, uz kompetetivne cijene, postale su realnost na Srednjem Istoku. Kompanija ACWA Power International iz Saudijske Arabije dobila je ugovor u Dubaiu, vrijedan milijardu USD, za gradnju koncentracijske solarne elektrane (CPS) snage 200 MW, koja će slati u mrežu električnu energiju između četiri sata popodne i deset ujutro. Ugovor je sklopljen na 25 godina, a otkupna cijena isporučene električne energije bit će 9,45 američkih centa po kilovatsatu ¢/kWh. CSP su termoelektrane: pomoću zrcala koncentriraju solarno zračenje koje zagrijava vodu, koja se pretvara u paru i pogoni parnu turbinu. Dok je cijena gradnje fotonaponskih solarnih elektrana znatno opala i one su postale najjeftiniji izvor električne energije u subtropskim regijama (do rekordnih 2,45 ¢/kWh!), koncentracijske solarne elektrane (CSP) su znatno skuplje (dosad su cijene bile 15 do 18 ¢/kWh). Sad i njihove cijene padaju, zahvaljujući kineskim proizvođačima opreme (koji su najzaslužniji i za pad cijena FN, pa danas proizvode 80% fotonaponskih solarnih panela u svijetu). CSP imaju ugrađen kolektor vručeg fluida (otopljene soli, temperature do 490°C), pa mogu preko dana skladištiti energiju za kasnije korištenje. Kombinacija oba tipa može dati stabilan sustav u zemljama pogodne klime; o tome smo pisali ovdje (planovi Saudijske Arabije). Paddy Padmanathan, CEO kompanije ACWA, kaže da očekuje kako će CSP u roku od 18 mjeseci biti po cijeni ravnopravne termoelektranama na prirodni plin s kombiniranim ciklusom. Međutim, konkurencija stiže, uz niske cijene FN, s opadajućom cijenom baterija. Jenny Chase iz Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) kaže da do 2021., kad ova CSE treba biti puštena u pogon, kombinacija fotonaponskih elektrana i baterija može biti jednake cijene, a mnogo je fleksibilnija od solarne termoelektrane. Tako se međusobno takmiče dvije solarne tehnologije. Padmanathan kaže da danas u svijetu postoje samo dva proizvođača CSP, a ostali su bankrotirali (jer je razvoj u posljednjih 10-15 godina bio sporiji nego što su se nadali). Međutim, sada se bar pet kineskih kompanija priprema ući na tržište. ACWA gradi slične elektrane u pustinjama u Maroku i Južnoj Africi, gdje po jedna CPS već radi. a još su dvije u Maroku i jedna u SA ugradnji.
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Solar Thermal Plants Aim to Keep Lights on at Night in Middle East
Solar plants that supply electricity at competitive prices after the sun goes down are about to become a reality in the Middle East, according to one of the region’s biggest developers of power plants. ACWA Power International CEO Paddy Padmanathan confirmed his company is the low bidder on a $1 billion project that will feed electricity to the grid for the Dubai Water & Electricity Authority between 4 p.m. and 10 a.m. More such plants are likely to follow because Chinese companies will start driving down the cost of equipment, he said. The 200-MW Dubai contract, which runs for 25 years, will harness a two-decade old technology called concentrated-solar power (CSP), or solar thermal. Unlike solar PV, which generates a charge directly from the sun’s power, thermal plants use mirrors to concentrate heat on water, turning it to steam to drive a turbine. The heat can be stored in molten salt to be used later. The technology to date has slipped behind PV on cost but is quickly becoming more competitive, the executive said. “I expect concentrated-solar power, within 18 months, to be head to head with combined-cycle gas, if not more competitive,” Padmanathan said in an interview in London. “The focus has been on PV and batteries, but there’s a limit on how long they can hold a charge for. We’re proving that CSP can work through the night.” Since it can retain heat, the plant can keep working after dark. The sun’s energy in some cases can heat molten salt to 490 degrees Celsius (914 degrees Fahrenheit), which allows operators to predict when electricity will flow.

Uncertain Outlook
While solar thermal plants are becoming cheaper, PV costs are falling too, raising questions whether the Dubai project really will be as attractive as ACWA expects, said Jenny Chase, head of solar analysis at Bloomberg New Energy Finance. “This plant in Dubai is for delivery by 2021,” Chase said. “By then, we’re expecting solar PV and batteries to be in the same order of magnitude for cost and will be a lot more flexible than a solar thermal plant. Also, a lot of these projects are operating below what they’re meant to, such as the entire Spanish fleet and some in India as well.” There are 319 GW of PV panels installed worldwide, compared to about 5 GW of solar thermal, according to BNEF data. The mass deployment has driven down costs of solar panel equipment by about 70 percent since 2010, with the latest record set in Abu Dhabi at 2.45 cents per kWh. In comparison, solar thermal was around 15 to 18 cents per kWh until recently. China hosts 80 percent of the world’s PV solar manufacturing industry. The nation’s expertise at mass production is credited with making solar panels more affordable, although companies are now reviving work on thermal technology.

More Suppliers
“There are currently just two suppliers in solar CSP,” Padmanathan said. “The others have gone bankrupt. I know of at least five Chinese companies that are starting to enter the market.” ACWA, which is based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, bid 9.45 cents per kWh, almost cutting in half the cost of CSP. Each of the bidders were also asked to submit an alternative tender. The offtaker will choose between the bid and the alternative bid, so the price may be even lower. ACWA has also built similar projects in Morocco’s Noor solar complex and South Africa’s desert. One in each nation are operating, with two more in Morocco and one in South Africa currently under development. ACWA is also seeking to build two more projects in Morocco in the Midelt area, which will have a joint capacity of 350 MW. “I’m also hoping to build one in Saudi,” Padmanathan said. “Right now they’re tendering for solar PV and wind, but I think they’ll want a CSP project as well, especially when they see how cost competitive it can be.”
©2017 Bloomberg News

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Udruga SOLAR  je nastala 2011. godine kao potreba organiziranja civilnog društva u smjeru korištenja i primjene obnovljivih izvora energije, primjene alternativnih izvora energije te povećanja energijske učinkovitosti na razini korisnika i lokalne zajednice.

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Hrastović Inženjering d.o.o. od 2004. se razvija u specijaliziranu tvrtku za projektiranje i primjenu obnovljivih izvora energije. Osnova projektnog managementa održivog razvitka društva je povećanje energijske djelotvornosti klasičnih instalacija i zgrada te projektiranje novih hibridnih energijskih sustava sunčane arhitekture.

Cijeli živi svijet pokreće i održava u postojanju stalni dotok Sunčeve energije, a primjenom transformacijskih tehnologija Sunce bi moglo zadovoljiti ukupne energetske potrebe društva.

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